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PSE4U Exercise Science

Unit 1

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Unit 2

Section 1: Principles and Terminology

Learning Objectives for This Section

  • Basic terminology of anatomy and physiology
  • The anatomical position
  • Anatomical planes
  • Anatomical axes
  • Basic movements involving joints
  • The ten biological systems of the human body

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

  • Principles and Terminology: Read pages 2 - 7 and make notes. Please pay special attention to Table 1.1 (Basic Movements Involving a Joint) on page 4. We will create flash cards in class to memorize these terms and meanings. Check out this file (S:/Mr. Tarantini's classes/PSE4U/Kin/Anatomical Orientation.ppt) for help with the Anatomical positions.  (It' s a powerpoint presentation from the web, so start powerpoint viewer 97 and use browse to locate the file. If you really want to become an expert, follow this link and answer the questions.
  • Exercise 1.1:  Section Quiz (practice) In class handout.
  • Exercise 1.2: Terminology Review.  Follow the link below to view this assignment. 
  • Exercise 1.3 The Anatomical Position.  Label the in class handout.
  • Exercise 1.4:  Movements involving a joint.  Label the in class handout.
Check out this link for types of movement

Section 2: The Skeletal System

Learning Objectives for This Section

  • The differences between the human male and female skeletons
  • The role and functions of the skeleton in the human body
  • The human skeleton’s basic structure and composition
  • The five types of human bones
  • The names and locations of the body’s key bones and bone structures
  • The concepts of bone landmarks and insertions, and key landmark/insertion sites throughout the body
  • The process of ossification and bone formation
  • The process of bone remodelling
  • Epiphyseal or growth plates of bones
  • Bone fractures and their three main categories
  • How bones heal
  • Bone disease, stress fractures, and the effects of aging on bone

The Skeletal System

  1. Exercise 2.1:  Section quiz.  This is an in class handout.
  2. Exercise 2.2:  Terminology Review.  In class workbook.
  3. Exercise 2.3:  Anatomy of A Long Bone.   This is from page 12 (Fig. 2.3) in the text.  Label the handout.
  4. Exercise 2.4:  Here's where it gets interesting kids.  Try not to lose it here.  There is  a lot of memorizing to be done, so use the web links as much as possible and keep testing yourself.  Rehearsal is the key.  Label the workbook diagrams (utilize as many other resources as possible).
  5. Exercise 2.5;  More labels and a whole lot more bones. 
  6. Exercise 2.6:  Skeletal Crossword.  Should be fun if your frustration level is in check.
Check out this link as it has sections on the Skeletal, Muscular, and Nervous system.  (This one is really cool)
Another great site. The University of Minnesota WebAnatomy

Need help with the structure of a long bone, this link can help!

Need help with the pronunciation of these words, click here.  Look under the list of topics for the full skeleton.

Test your knowledge on the body smart quizzes . 

Section 3: The Muscular System

Learning Objectives for This Section

  • The number of muscles in the human body
  • The three types of muscles (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth) and their unique role in the muscular system
  • Muscle fibres
  • The neuromuscular system and the relationship between the muscles and the nervous system
  • The motor unit and the concept of “muscle twitch”
  • Large and small motor units and the all-or-none principle
  • The inward and outward perspectives of the anatomy of skeletal muscles
  • How muscles are named, and the basic naming groups within the muscular system
  • The ways in which muscles attach to bones
  • The concept of “agonist” and “antagonist” muscles
  • The origin and insertion of muscles throughout the skeletal system
  • Muscular contraction, and the three basic kinds of contraction
  • The sliding filament theory of muscle contraction
  • How muscle fibre responds to physical training
  • The process of excitation-contraction coupling
  • The location of key muscles and muscle groups throughout the body
  • Ways in which the body’s major muscle groups can be exercised, and the role of resistance training as a way of exercising muscles
Read pages 40 -42 in the text and answer this quiz on Sliding Filament theory and muscle excitation contraction.

Want to view an animation of the Actin-Myosin crossbridge.

Try this exercise on the sliding filament theory.

A link that covers a number of muscle related topics. (text and diagrams).  Thanks Adam.

Hey!  More quizzes on the muscular system.

There are so many muscles in the body!  We will concentrate on the "workout muscles."  Check this link to decipher muscles that function during what exercise.

Ever wonder why a turkey has white and dark meat?  Here is some light reading on Muscle Fibre Types ..  Check out the quiz link as well.

BBC:  Science and Nature.  Another link that is useful for a number of body systems. 

University of California Muscle Physiology web site.  Plenty of reading and images for those seeking higher knowledge.

Try not to panic!  Need help with origin and insertions try the activities listed on this site.  Simply do a search for "muscle origin"

Muscle O/I Table in PDF

Muscle Tutorial Interactive

Flashcards

Labelling Exercises

Section 4: Joint Mechanics and Joint Injuries

Learning Objectives for This Section

  • The role of joints within the human body
  • The structural classification of joints (fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial)
  • Characteristics and types of synovial joints
  • Joint tissue and its properties
  • Tears, sprains, and pulls
  • Tendinitis
  • Dislocations and separations
  • Cartilage and how it can be damaged
  • Stress fractures
  • Injury treatment
  • The S.H.A.R.P. method of injury diagnosis
  • The P.I.E.R. principle of injury treatment
  • The properties of the shoulder joint and its common injuries
  • The properties of the knee joint and its common injuries
  • The properties of the ankle joint and its common injuries

Please follow this link and make notes onthe information to supplement the text material.
More information for those seeking a higher understanding of joints
A practice quiz on joints of the upper and lower body.  More in depth than the text.

Section 6: The Nervous System and the Control of Movement

Learning Objectives for This Section

  • How the nervous system controls human movemen 
  • The two components of the human nervous system: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
  • The basic functions of the brain in coordinating human movement, and the key brain areas in which this activity occurs
  • The role of the vertebral column and the spinal cord
  • The basic functions of the peripheral nervous system, and its division into the autonomic and somatic nervous systems
  • The concept of the “reflex arc” and its function in facilitating movement
  • Proprioceptors and their function in controlling human movement
  • Golgi tendon organs and the tension reflex
  • Muscle spindles and their function
  • Polysynaptic reflexes and their role in human movement
  • The importance of the spinal cord and its potential injuries, including paraplegia and quadriplegia
  • Various means of treating spinal cord injuries
  • The significance and treatment of head injuries and concussions
An overview of the nervous system from the U of M learning module.
A link to an overview of the Nervous System. Please read and add to the notes from the text.
BBC website.  Check out the section on the Nervous System.
Biology website covering the entire nervous system.  Focus your reading on the production and control of movement.
A complete overview of the nervous system
Extensive nervous system information.  Scroll down to find the links to Neurological and Mental disorders.
The Brain and Nervous system Theme Page.  Links to a number of different sites.
How we see:  The first steps to Human Vison

Section 7: The Cardiovascular and Respiratory System

Learning Objectives for This Section

  • The basic function and structure of the cardiovascular system
  • How blood flows through the heart
  • The heart’s contractions and electrical “excitations”
  • The role of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, and blood within the cardiovascular system
  • The cardiovascular system’s response to exercise, including the concepts of cardiac output, blood pressure, and blood flow distribution
  • The effects of training on the cardiovascular system
  • Cardiovascular disease, its causes, risks, and cures
  • The basic function and structure of the respiratory system and its importance to the body’s overall function
  • The two basic zones (conductive and respiratory) of the overall respiratory system
  • Ventilation and its controls within the respiratory system
  • The body’s system of oxygen transport, including carbon dioxide transport, ventilation, and the regulation of blood pH
  • Respiratory dynamics, including pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration, and adaptations to training
  • Oxygen consumption and the concept of VO2max
  • Oxygen deficit and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
Access Excellence:  The Heart and Circulatory System.

W.C. Eaket Secondary School